The genesis and transformation of Halloween traditions across Europe and beyond

by Marzia Parmigiani
16 minutes read
The origins and evolution of Halloween traditions in Europe and beyond

It’s that spooky time of year again! Pumpkins are being carved, costumes are being prepared, and candy is flying off the shelves. But have you ever wondered about the origins and evolution of Halloween traditions? It’s a lot more than just a night of dressing up and trick-or-treating. In this content, we’ll discover the origins and evolution of Halloween traditions in Europe and beyond.

The origins and evolution of Halloween

The story behind Halloween dates all the way back to the ancient Celts of Ireland and their festival of Samhain. For them, Samhain marked the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter, a time often associated with death. They believed that during this time, the boundary between the living world and the world of the dead became thin, and ghosts could return to walk the earth. To ward off these meddling spirits, the Celts built huge bonfires and donned disguises to confuse the ghosts and avoid being terrorized.

The origins and evolution of Halloween: carving Jack-o’-Lanterns

Over time, the Christian missionaries introduced All Saints’ Day on November 1, which incorporated some of the traditions of Samhain, and the evening before All Saints’ Day became known as All Hallows Eve – and, eventually, Halloween. With the influence of American culture and media, Halloween has evolved into the holiday we know today, with its iconic jack-o’-lanterns, spooky costumes, and trick-or-treating.

But the evolution of Halloween traditions should not be underestimated. Carving jack-o’-lanterns, for example, originally used turnips in Ireland instead of pumpkins, and it was allegedly based on a legend about a man named Stingy Jack who repeatedly trapped the Devil and only let him go on the condition that Jack would never go to Hell.

When Jack died, he learned that Heaven didn’t want his soul either and was forced to wander the Earth as a ghost for eternity. The Devil gave Jack a burning lump of coal in a carved-out turnip to light his way. Locals soon began carving scary faces into their own turnips to frighten away evil spirits. The wearing of costumes initially had a practical purpose during Samhain to avoid being mistaken for the spirits, but it has also evolved into an opportunity to be creative and have fun. Trick-or-treating itself has disputed origins; some theories suggest Celtic people left food out to appease the spirits traveling the Earth, while other theories suggest it originated from the medieval practice of souling “when poor people would go door to door on November 1, receiving food and soul cakes in return for prayers for the dead”.

All in all, Halloween is a fascinating holiday with deep roots in ancient Celtic tradition and folklore, continuing to evolve over the years. It’s a time for creativity, fun, and a little bit of spooky mischief. So, let’s embrace the spirit of Halloween and all its rich and wonderful history.

As we said, while early versions of the Jack-o’-Lantern were carved into turnips, the switch to pumpkins as the primary medium for carving didn’t occur until immigrants brought the tradition to America. Pumpkins were more readily available in the U.S. than turnips, and their softer flesh made them easier to carve.

Over time, the tradition of carving Jack-o’-Lanterns has evolved. Today, we see elaborate designs and intricate carvings that go far beyond a simple scary face. We also see non-traditional materials being used to make lanterns, such as plastic pumpkins with battery-operated lights.

While the tradition of carving Jack-o’-Lanterns has grown beyond its original roots, it remains one of the most beloved and iconic Halloween traditions. So, this Halloween season, don’t forget to pick up a pumpkin (or turnip, if you’re feeling particularly old-school) and get carving!

Seeing Ghosts

One of the most fascinating aspects of Halloween is the belief that spirits returned to the living world. This belief originated from the Celtic festival of Samhain, which marked the end of the harvest season and onset of winter. The Celts believed that during this time, the veil between the living world and the afterlife was thinner and that the dead could return to the living world. In Celtic tradition, these ghosts were not necessarily evil or malicious; they were merely lost souls looking to reconnect with the living.

During the Samhain festival, Celtic priests would light bonfires as a means of warding off any malevolent spirits. To further protect themselves, people would wear costumes and masks to trick the ghosts into believing they were fellow spirits. Coming into contact with a spirit was seen as bad luck, but having one attach itself to you was even worse.

Despite this fear, the Celts believed that the ghosts could also answer their questions about the future. The thinning of the veil between worlds was believed to give them a glimpse into what was to come. The priests would take advantage of this occasion to make predictions about the upcoming year, much like the modern-day practice of fortune-telling.

Today, Halloween is more associated with spooky ghost stories and horror movies than with the Celtic beliefs that inspired them. However, some aspects of the original tradition still persist, such as carving pumpkins into jack-o’-lanterns, which were originally made using turnips. These ghoulish faces were meant to scare away any lingering spirits.

From Celtic priests using the veil to predict the future, to trick-or-treaters wandering the streets in search of candy, the evolution of Halloween is a rich and varied history. The traditions may have changed over the years, but the spirit of the holiday remains the same: to embrace the dark and eerie and revel in the spooky side of life.

The origins and evolution of Halloween: wearing scary costumes

Although the costumes were more practical and utilitarian, costumes have taken on a broader role in modern-day Halloween celebrations, serving not only as a protective measure, but also as a way to change one’s identity or express themselves.

With the evolution of costumes and disguises over the years, pop culture has also had its fair share of influence on Halloween costumes. Whether dressing up as a favourite superhero or as a popular character from a TV show or movie, people are always keen on finding creative ways to incorporate pop culture into their Halloween costumes. And with the rise of social media, the pressure has also mounted to come up with the most clever, ingenious and trendy costumes that will undoubtedly get a lot of likes and shares on social media.

From traditional costumes such as ghosts and witches to modern and current trends, costumes continue to evolve every year as Halloween fever grips the world. People enjoy the excitement of embracing different forms of creative expression that comes with the holiday. Whether it’s a scream-worthy zombie outfit or a cute and cuddly costume for the little ones, Halloween remains one of the most beloved and anticipated holidays across the globe.


Trick-or-treating is quintessential activity of Halloween night. It’s the one night of the year when children are allowed, even encouraged, to knock on strangers’ doors and demand candy. But where did this tradition come from? The origins of trick-or-treating are murky, but generally, there are three theories.

The initial hypothesis posits that in the midst of Samhain, Celtic individuals would offer sustenance to pacify the wandering spirits during the nocturnal hours. Subsequently, Christian missionaries promoted the tradition of providing alms to those in need on All Saints’ Day, which falls on the day following Halloween. This evolved into “souling,” where beggars would go from house to house asking for food in exchange for prayers for the dead. Eventually, children took up this practice and transformed it into trick-or-treating.

The second theory suggests that trick-or-treating originated from the English tradition of “guising,” in which children went from house to house dressed in costumes and performing in exchange for food, wine, and money. This tradition was brought to America by Irish immigrants and blended with the already existing practice of “souling.”

The third theory suggests that trick-or-treating was a result of the Great Depression, when children would go door-to-door and ask for food or money to supplement the family’s income. This practice faded as the economy improved, but the tradition of trick-or-treating persisted.

Regardless of its origins, trick-or-treating has become a staple of modern Halloween celebrations. It has evolved into a tradition where children dress up in costumes and go door-to-door saying “trick or treat” in exchange for candy. Some children even bring a pillowcase to store their haul of candy in.

Trick-or-treating traditions around the world

However, trick-or-treating traditions vary around the world. In Scotland, children go “guising,” while in England, instead of saying “trick-or-treat,” children say “Penny for the Guy,” and carry around effigies of Guy Fawkes. In Mexico, children go calaverita, where they sing to neighbors and receive treats or money in return.

In recent years, trick-or-treating has undergone some changes because of safety concerns. Many neighborhoods have designated hours for trick-or-treating, while some have instituted community events with candy provided by local businesses. Some households even give out non-food treats to accommodate children with allergies or dietary restrictions.

No matter how it’s celebrated, trick-or-treating remains a favorite Halloween tradition for kids all over the world, and one that will continue to evolve with time.

All Saints’ and All Souls’ Day

The traditions of Halloween were not always embraced by the Christian Church, but over time the Church began incorporating them into their religious practices. All Saints’ Day, also known as All Hallows, was designated by Pope Gregory III in the eighth century to honour saints and martyrs. It was celebrated on November 1st, the same day as the Celtic festival of Samhain. All Souls’ Day, which followed on November 2nd, was a day to pray for the souls of the dead.

The Christian Church’s incorporation of these two holidays brought about changes in the Halloween celebrations. The emphasis of remembering the dead shifted from ancestors to religious figures, and the celebration became more focused on praying for the dead. However, many aspects of the pagan Halloween traditions, such as dressing up in costume and carving jack-o-lanterns, continued to be incorporated into the new Christian practices.

Today, All Saints’ and All Souls’ Day are celebrated primarily by the Catholic Church, with masses, prayers, and offerings made in honour of the saints and the deceased. In Mexico, this day is celebrated as the Day of the Dead, a colourful and festive holiday that includes elaborate altars, offerings of food and drink, and parades. Halloween has also become a global phenomenon, celebrated in many countries around the world, albeit with varying degrees of enthusiasm and cultural adaptation.

In conclusion, the evolution of Halloween traditions shows the adaptability of cultures and how they incorporate and evolve customs over time. From its humble beginnings as a Celtic harvest festival, Halloween has become a global extravaganza with a rich and diverse set of practices. As we continue to celebrate Halloween each year, we pay tribute to the rich and colourful history of this holiday.

The origins and evolution of Halloween in the US

Halloween has long been one of the most beloved and anticipated holidays in American culture. Its origins trace back over 2,000 years to the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain, celebrated in areas now known as Ireland, the United Kingdom, and Northern France. During this harvest celebration, it was believed that the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead became blurred, allowing spirits to roam the earth. The Celts wore costumes and lit bonfires to ward off any wandering ghosts.

When Roman conquests spread Christianity throughout the region, the church designated November 1st as All Saints’ Day to honor martyrs and saints. The evening before became known as All Hallows’ Eve, and later Halloween. As Christianity spread, the supernatural elements of Samhain were incorporated into Halloween lore.

The holiday was brought to North America by Irish and Scottish immigrants in the 19th century. At that time, Halloween customs focused on telling ghost stories, fortune telling, and mild pranks.

The diverse cultures of early America began to blend their varied Halloween traditions. During the mass immigration of Irish citizens fleeing potato famine in the 1840s, the practice of dressing up in costumes and going house to house asking for food or money, known as “souling”, transitioned into children going door to door asking for candy.

The first known printed use of the term “trick-or-treat” was in Canada in 1927. While early costumes were often homemade, in the 1930s manufactured costumes became popular after the German American founder of Woolworth’s Five and Dime stores started selling them.

Over time, Halloween in America evolved from a religious observance to a more commercialized and community centered holiday. During the 1950s, family parties, decorations, and pranks were common. By the late 20th century, influences like horror movies and skillful marketing brought the holiday mainstream. Halloween is now the second highest grossing commercial holiday after Christmas, generating over $10 billion annually.

Modern day Halloween celebrations still incorporate long held traditions like costuming, trick-or-treating, and community parties. Popular costumes are often drawn from pop culture icons and current events. Intricately carved pumpkins called jack-o-lanterns are based on the Celtic tradition of carving turnips and beets. While mild mischief like toilet paper tossing still exists, destructive vandalism has largely declined. Safety increased with more organized events at schools, churches, and community centers. The holiday remains an opportunity to celebrate community, enjoy sweet treats, and embrace a little spooky fun leading into the darker winter months.

The Bottom Line

In this content we talked about the origins and evolution of Halloween traditions in Europe and beyond. For over 2,000 years, Halloween has evolved across continents and cultures from ancient harvest rituals to a hallmark of America. It continues to capture imaginations young and old, both drawing from enduring folklore and adapting to reflect each new era. Halloween serves as a unique bridge between history and modern traditions.

In summary, Halloween has its roots in the Celtic festival of Samhain, which marked the transition to the new year at the end of the harvest and beginning of winter. The Celts believed that during Samhain, spirits walked the Earth, which prompted them to wear scary costumes and carve lanterns to ward off malevolent spirits. Over time, these practices evolved and were blended with Christian traditions to honor the dead, leading to the formation of Halloween as we know it today.

One of the enduring appeals of Halloween is its fun and playful nature, which encourages people to dress up, carve pumpkins, and go trick-or-treating. It also provides an opportunity for communities to come together and celebrate a festive occasion that has stood the test of time. As society evolves, it will be interesting to see how Halloween traditions continue to adapt to changing cultural norms and values.

So, get ready to put on your scariest costume, carve that perfect Jack-o’-lantern, and eat too much candy. Halloween is here to stay, and as long as there are harvests to celebrate and spirits to ward off, there will be plenty of reasons to keep the tradition alive. Stay tuned to discover more stories and trivia and everything about our LCN App.

Leave a Comment

* By using this form you agree with the storage and handling of your data by this website.